Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by red, scaly patches on the skin, often accompanied by itching and inflammation. While there is no known cure for psoriasis, there are treatments available that can help reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.

Here, we will explore the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for psoriasis to help you better understand this complex disorder. By learning more about this common skin disorder, you can take steps to manage your psoriasis and lead a happier, healthier life.

History and Definition

Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune skin condition that has been recognized for thousands of years. The word “psoriasis” comes from the Greek word “psora,” which means “itch.” The condition was first described by the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates in the 5th century BC.

Over the centuries, psoriasis has been the subject of much study and debate. In the Middle Ages, it was thought to be a punishment from God, and people with psoriasis were often ostracized and even burned at the stake. It was not until the 19th century that psoriasis began to be recognized as a distinct medical condition.

Psoriasis can occur in people of any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in early adulthood. It can affect any part of the body, but is most commonly found on the elbows, knees, scalp, and lower back. The severity of psoriasis can vary widely, from mild and occasional flare-ups to severe and persistent symptoms that can have a significant impact on a person’s quality of life.

While psoriasis is not contagious and can be managed with proper treatment and care, it is still a condition that is often misunderstood and stigmatized. Despite its long history and the many advances in modern medicine, there is still much to learn about psoriasis and how to effectively manage it.


The symptoms of psoriasis can vary widely from person to person, but some common symptoms include:

  • Red, inflamed patches of skin: The most common symptom of psoriasis is the appearance of red, inflamed patches of skin. These patches can be itchy, painful, and sometimes even bleed.


  • Silver or white scales: Another characteristic of psoriasis is the presence of silver or white scales on the patches of affected skin. These scales are the result of the rapid turnover of skin cells.


  • Dry, cracked skin: The skin affected by psoriasis can become dry, cracked, and sometimes even bleed. This can be especially true for areas of skin that are constantly exposed to friction or pressure, such as the elbows or knees.


  • Thickened, pitted nails: In some cases, psoriasis can affect the nails, causing them to become thickened and pitted. The nails may also become discolored or separate from the nail bed.


  • Joint pain and stiffness: Some people with psoriasis may experience joint pain and stiffness, especially in the fingers, toes, and lower back. This is known as psoriatic arthritis and can cause significant discomfort and disability.

The severity of psoriasis can vary widely, from mild and occasional flare-ups to severe and persistent symptoms that can have a significant impact on a person’s quality of life. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical advice from a healthcare professional who can provide an accurate diagnosis and recommend appropriate treatment options.


The exact causes of psoriasis are not fully understood, but it is believed to be a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. Here are some of the potential causes of psoriasis:

  • Genetic factors: Psoriasis is believed to have a genetic component, as it tends to run in families. Researchers have identified a number of genes that may be associated with the development of psoriasis.


  • Immune system dysfunction: Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease, which means that the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells, in this case, the skin cells. This leads to the rapid turnover of skin cells and the formation of the characteristic psoriasis patches.


  • Environmental triggers: Environmental factors, such as stress, infections, injuries to the skin, and certain medications, can trigger psoriasis in people who are predisposed to the condition. Infections, particularly streptococcal infections, have been linked to the onset of psoriasis in some individuals.


  • Lifestyle factors: Certain lifestyle factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity, may increase the risk of developing psoriasis or exacerbate existing symptoms.

It’s important to note that psoriasis is not contagious and cannot be spread from person to person. While the causes of psoriasis are not fully understood, there are effective treatments available to manage the condition and improve quality of life. 


Diagnosing psoriasis involves a combination of physical examination, medical history review, and sometimes laboratory tests. Here are some of the steps that healthcare professionals may take to diagnose psoriasis:

  • Physical examination: During a physical exam, a healthcare professional will examine the affected areas of skin and look for characteristic symptoms of psoriasis, such as red, inflamed patches of skin with silver or white scales. They may also examine the nails and joints for signs of psoriatic arthritis.


  • Medical history review: A healthcare professional will review the patient’s medical history, including any previous skin conditions, infections, or injuries. They may also ask about family history of psoriasis, as there is a genetic component to the condition.


  • Biopsy: In some cases, a healthcare professional may take a small sample of affected skin for examination under a microscope. This can help confirm the diagnosis of psoriasis and rule out other skin conditions that may have similar symptoms.


  • Blood tests: While there is no specific blood test for psoriasis, a healthcare professional may order blood tests to rule out other conditions or to monitor the patient’s overall health.

Once psoriasis has been diagnosed, healthcare professionals will work with the patient to develop a treatment plan that is tailored to their individual needs and symptoms.


Psoriasis is a chronic condition, which means that there is currently no cure. However, there are a variety of non-surgical and surgical treatment options available that can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Here are some of the most common treatment options for psoriasis:


  • Topical treatments: Topical creams, ointments, and solutions can be applied directly to the affected skin to help reduce inflammation, itching, and scaling. Some examples of topical treatments for psoriasis include corticosteroids, vitamin D analogues, retinoids, and calcineurin inhibitors.


  • Phototherapy: Phototherapy, also known as light therapy, involves exposing the skin to ultraviolet light under medical supervision. This can help reduce inflammation and slow down the growth of skin cells.


  • Systemic medications: Systemic medications, such as biologics, methotrexate, and cyclosporine, are taken orally or by injection and work throughout the body to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.


While surgery is not a first-line treatment for psoriasis, some surgical procedures may be recommended in certain cases, such as:

  • Excimer laser therapy: This involves using a high-intensity UVB laser to target specific areas of psoriasis on the skin.


  • Skin grafting: In severe cases of psoriasis, skin grafting may be used to replace damaged or affected skin with healthy skin from another part of the body.

After treatment, individuals with psoriasis can expect to see improvements in their symptoms, such as reduced redness, inflammation, and scaling. However, it is important to note that psoriasis is a chronic condition and may require ongoing treatment and management. Some treatments may also have potential side effects, which should be discussed with a healthcare professional.

Additionally, it’s important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, manage stress, and avoid triggers, such as certain medications or environmental factors, to help reduce the frequency and severity of psoriasis flare-ups.

Risk Factors

Psoriasis is a complex condition that can be influenced by a variety of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Here are some of the common risk factors associated with psoriasis:

  • Genetics: Psoriasis has a strong genetic component, and individuals with a family history of psoriasis are at a higher risk of developing the condition.


  • Age: Psoriasis can develop at any age, but it most commonly occurs between the ages of 15 and 35, and again between the ages of 50 and 60.


  • Stress: Stress can trigger or exacerbate psoriasis symptoms in some individuals.


  • Infections: Infections, particularly streptococcal infections, have been linked to the onset or worsening of psoriasis symptoms in some individuals.


  • Obesity: Obesity is a risk factor for psoriasis, and individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) may be at an increased risk of developing the condition.


  • Smoking: Smoking has been linked to a higher risk of psoriasis, as well as more severe symptoms and a decreased response to treatment.


  • Medications: Certain medications, such as lithium, beta-blockers, and antimalarial drugs, can trigger or worsen psoriasis symptoms in some individuals.


  • Alcohol consumption: Heavy alcohol consumption has been linked to an increased risk of psoriasis and may worsen symptoms in some individuals.

While these risk factors do not guarantee that an individual will develop psoriasis, they may increase the likelihood of developing the condition or exacerbating symptoms. It’s important to speak with a healthcare professional if you are experiencing symptoms of psoriasis or have concerns about your risk of developing the condition.


In addition to the symptoms of the condition itself, psoriasis can also lead to a variety of complications. Here are some of the most common complications associated with psoriasis:

  • Joint pain and inflammation: Psoriasis can sometimes cause joint pain and inflammation, a condition known as psoriatic arthritis. This can affect any joint in the body and can cause significant discomfort and disability if left untreated.


  • Increased risk of other health conditions: Psoriasis has been linked to a higher risk of other health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression.


  • Skin infections: The cracked and dry skin associated with psoriasis can make individuals more susceptible to skin infections, such as cellulitis and impetigo.


  • Social isolation: Psoriasis can be a visible and stigmatizing condition, which can lead to social isolation, anxiety, and depression.


  • Sleep disturbance: The itching, pain, and discomfort associated with psoriasis can make it difficult to sleep, leading to fatigue and decreased quality of life.


  • Side effects of treatment: Some treatments for psoriasis, such as systemic medications, can have potential side effects, such as nausea, diarrhea, and increased risk of infection.

Individuals with psoriasis need to work closely with their healthcare team to manage their condition effectively and minimize the risk of complications. This may involve a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and support from mental health professionals. 

When to See a Doctor

If you are experiencing symptoms of psoriasis, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional. Here are some signs that it may be time to see a doctor for psoriasis:

  • Persistent skin changes: If you have persistent skin changes, such as red, scaly patches of skin that do not go away with over-the-counter treatments, it may be time to see a doctor.


  • Joint pain and inflammation: If you are experiencing joint pain and inflammation in addition to skin symptoms, you may need to see a doctor for a proper diagnosis and treatment.


  • Emotional distress: If your psoriasis symptoms are causing emotional distress, such as depression, anxiety, or social isolation, it may be time to seek help from a mental health professional.


  • Other health concerns: If you have other health concerns, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease, that may be related to your psoriasis, it is important to seek medical attention to manage these conditions.


  • Concerns about treatment: If you have concerns about the safety or effectiveness of your current psoriasis treatment, or are experiencing side effects, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional.

A healthcare professional can provide a proper diagnosis and work with you to develop an individualized treatment plan that meets your needs and improves your quality of life.

Step-by-Step Guide to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Treatment

Here’s a step-by-step guide to psoriasis treatment:


If you suspect you have psoriasis, your first step is to schedule a consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a dermatologist, plastic surgeon, or rheumatologist. During this consultation, your healthcare provider will examine your skin, review your medical history, and ask you about your symptoms.


After examining your skin and reviewing your medical history, your healthcare provider will make a diagnosis of psoriasis. In some cases, a skin biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment Plan

Once you have been diagnosed with psoriasis, your healthcare provider will work with you to develop an individualized treatment plan based on the severity of your symptoms, your overall health, and your personal preferences.

Follow-Up Appointments

It is important to schedule regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider to monitor your progress and adjust your treatment plan as necessary.

After Treatment

After treatment for psoriasis, it is important to continue taking any prescribed medications and following your healthcare provider’s instructions for managing your symptoms. You may also need to make lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and managing stress, to help manage your psoriasis symptoms.

Psoriasis treatment is an ongoing process that requires close collaboration between you and your healthcare provider. By working together, you can develop a treatment plan that helps manage your symptoms and improve your quality of life.


In conclusion, psoriasis is a chronic and uncomfortable skin condition that can have a real impact on your quality of life. While there is no cure for psoriasis, there are treatments available to help manage symptoms and reduce flare-ups. It is important to talk to your doctor if you experience any symptoms of psoriasis so they can determine the best course of treatment for you. Living with psoriasis may be challenging but it doesn’t have to be unmanageable – with the right approach, you can find ways to make living with this condition easier.


With more than 35 years of experience, Dr. Colin Hong is a highly respected plastic surgeon in Toronto. His expertise covers a range of cosmetic, plastic, and reconstructive surgeries, and he is known for offering some of the most affordable rates in the Toronto, North York, and Markham areas.

To schedule a consultation with Dr. Hong, please reach out to his office at (416) 222-6986 or send an email to To help us reach you promptly, please include your full name, email address, and phone number. It’s also important to obtain a referral from your family doctor before making an appointment with Dr. Colin Hong for psoriasis treatment.

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